Domain Generalization with Small Data
International Journal of Computer Vision (IJCV) 2024

1 Department of Electrical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong
2 Department of Mathematics, University of Oxford
Figure 1


In this work, we propose to tackle the problem of domain generalization in the context of insufficient samples. Instead of extracting latent feature embeddings based on deterministic models, we propose to learn a domain-invariant representation based on the probabilistic framework by mapping each data point into probabilistic embeddings. Specifically, we first extend empirical maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) to a novel probabilistic MMD that can measure the discrepancy between mixture distributions (i.e., source domains) consisting of a series of latent distributions rather than latent points. Moreover, instead of imposing the contrastive semantic alignment (CSA) loss based on pairs of latent points, a novel probabilistic CSA loss encourages positive probabilistic embedding pairs to be closer while pulling other negative ones apart. Benefiting from the learned representation captured by probabilistic models, our proposed method can marriage the measurement on the distribution over distributions (i.e., the global perspective alignment) and the distribution-based contrastive semantic alignment (i.e., the local perspective alignment)


Figure 1

A visualized computational process for probabilistic MMD (P-MMD) on two source domains. The same color for samples in different domains denote the same label.


  title={Domain Generalization with Small Data},
  author={Kecheng Chen, Elena Gal, Hong Yan, and Haoliang Li},
  journal={International Journal of Computer Vision},